Caring for infants and young children (Part 1)
The care of babies and young children does not only begin after birth, but needs to be prepared in all aspects right before birth, even before pregnancy, especially in terms of knowledge and psychology. .
1. Receiving the baby born:
It is necessary to carefully prepare all family members for the moment to welcome the baby, especially for mothers who give birth to babies. This is a very important and very thrilling moment for the mother because after a period of pregnancy lasting about 9 months and 10 days, this is the first time mothers see the real baby in the flesh. This time may come as expected but can also come quite unexpectedly in preterm birth.
You will be really happy when you receive your lovely healthy baby soon after giving birth. At that time, all the pain, fatigue of the birth and many anxieties before giving birth will almost disappear to make room for a feeling of great happiness.
After birth, if the baby is healthy, the NHS will dry the baby according to the procedure before breastfeeding the baby.
Breast milk is always perfect and best for babies and babies.
– Children should be given skin-to-skin contact with the breast button as early as the first hour of age. The baby’s suckling is very necessary to stimulate the mother’s mammary glands to produce milk, so the sooner and more often the baby breastfeeds, the faster the mother will have enough milk for the baby. Early breastfeeding also helps the mother’s uterus contract better, helps the mother get pregnant slowly again as well as helps reduce some of the risks of diseases.
– Should exclusively breastfeed in the first 6 months and continue to breastfeed until the baby is 2 years old.
– Breast milk provides the most necessary and appropriate source of nutrients for babies. Breast milk helps the baby to resist many diseases, especially infections, and at the same time helps the baby develop in harmony and bond between mother and baby. Breast milk is readily available, safe and has long been regarded by the World Health Organization as the survival of babies for babies around the world, especially in poor and developing countries.
Specifically, breast milk has the following benefits:
+ Always a perfect source of nutrition, suitable for babies, especially colostrum after birth.
+ Easy to digest and less allergenic
+ Contains lots of antibodies to help children resist many diseases, especially in the first days of life.
How to breastfeed:
– Should soon start breastfeeding right now after birth. The mother may be tired at this point, but the baby has begun to ask for it. If the child is healthy, the button reflex will be strong. The first drops of colostrum are not really abundant but contain many nutrients, which are essential for babies, especially in the first days of life.
– Do not ask another mother to breastfeed her baby because there are many diseases that can be transmitted through breast milk such as HIV infection, hepatitis B, C …
– After the first suckling, the baby’s button movement and the mother’s health recovery will make 2 breasts “go to milk” and mature milk will fully meet the baby’s daily needs. The more a baby sucks, the more milk the mother’s body produces.
– Need to choose a position that both mother and baby are comfortable, so that breastfeeding is easy and effective, mothers can relax without back pain or numb arms and legs.
– It is possible to breastfeed in a sitting or lying position:
+ Sitting posture: the mother sits comfortably, her back can have support so that the muscles of the neck and lumbar region are not stretched quickly, causing fatigue and back pain. The baby is held firmly and lifted by the loving arms of the mother. You can add pillows below to make the child lift softer and easier.
+ The position for the child to lie close to the mother (used when the mother is tired or at night):
- The mother lies on her side, her lower thighs resting on the pillow, her upper leg bent at the knee.
- Lay the baby on his side facing the mother so that the baby’s mouth is close to the mother’s lower chest.
- The mother uses the lower arm to support the baby’s head to bring the baby’s mouth to the breast.
- When your baby latches on the breast, pay attention to the latch to make sure the baby sucks and swallows the milk easily.
– Start breastfeeding with some of the following movements:
- The mother and baby enter the above breastfeeding position, clean the nipples and breasts.
- The mother uses her thumb and index finger to hold the part near the nipple.
- Gently bring the nipple to the baby’s lips to stimulate the suckling reflex. When the baby opens his mouth, press the breast against the baby and bring the nipple into the baby’s mouth.
- Make sure the baby is properly attached to the breast: the baby’s mouth is wide open, the areola is attached, the chin touches the mother’s breast, the baby’s lower lip is brought out.
- The baby buttons steadily, the cheeks are tight, the mother can hear the gulping of milk gulping.
- Should breastfeed all breast milk, if the baby is not full, feed the other breast
Number of breastfeeds:
– Breastfeeding on demand, when the baby wants to breastfeed.
– Breastfeed both day and night.
– Usually babies breastfeed every 2 to 3 hours, each time from 15 to 30 minutes.
If your baby sleeps too much, you should wake up and feed your baby every 3 hours. If the baby is not taking 2 meals or the button reflex is too weak or the child is vomiting … then the baby should see the doctor immediately.
How do I know if my baby has enough milk?
– The baby is effectively nipple and swallows milk well.
– The baby sleeps quietly after breastfeeding.
– Children urinate a lot when they drink enough milk (at least 2-4 times / day) and have bowel movements.
– In the first week, the baby can lose physiological weight about 5 – 10% and if they drink enough milk, they will start to gain weight afterwards.
Burp your baby after breastfeeding:
– Need for babies in a high head position and pat the baby’s back burp during or after breastfeeding.
– Should burp the baby after feeding to avoid bloating, irritability and vomiting.
– Pay attention to the baby lying head about 15 to 30 degrees when the baby sleeps after breastfeeding to avoid the risk of choking when the baby vomits. Avoid posture for children to lie on their tummy without monitoring because the child is at risk of sudden death and should not put too many pillows or stuffed animals around the child because it is easy to cause the child to suffocate if these objects press on the baby’s nose.
Keep the mother from losing milk when the baby is isolated:
– Keeping breastmilk for the baby when the baby is temporarily isolated from the mother is very important for breastfeeding, especially in cases where a premature baby or a pathological infant requires admission to the neonatal department or must Transfer to another hospital after giving birth where the mother cannot take care of her directly and is not with the baby.
– It can also happen in mothers who work early or work mothers when their babies are not weaned. Especially mothers working at work.
– Direct breast-feeding is still best, but if that doesn’t work, the mother can express breastmilk by hand or using a breast pump.
– Psychological factors are very important because only the mother thinks about her baby is essential to contribute to maintaining breast milk.
– If your baby can digest breast milk, please take the time to express the milk and send it immediately to the baby every 3 hours. If you have to work, too, if you know how to store and preserve, your baby can take advantage of precious breast milk.
– The preservation and storage of breast milk must comply with the following instructions:
Storing and storing breastmilk at cool temperatures, in an ice bottle or in the refrigerator:
+ Before milking or pumping, you must wash your hands, clean the nipples and areola.
+ Only store milk in a glass or clear plastic bottle that has been sterilized, with a lid.
+ Finished milk must be stored and stored immediately at a cool temperature or in a refrigerator with an appropriate temperature:
- If milk is stored at a cool temperature of about 25 – 27 0 C, it must be breastfed within 4 hours.
- If milk is stored at a cool temperature of about 20-22 0 C, it must be breastfed within 10 hours.
- If the milk is stored at a colder temperature (in winter or the milk is kept in an ice-cold bottle) of about 15-16 0 C, it can be given to the baby within 24 hours.
- If the milk is kept in the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 ° C, it can be breastfed within 120 hours of reheating (about 5 days).
- If the milk is stored at a freezing temperature of about 0 0 C, it can be used to breastfeed within 2 weeks after reheating.
How to warm breastmilk:
Absolutely not boil breastmilk on the stove because doing so will destroy beneficial ingredients in breast milk, especially antibodies and other micronutrients.
– Mothers should warm milk in a container by soaking the whole bottle in a cup of warm water so that the temperature in the bottle does not exceed 40 0 C.
If the breast milk is frozen, it can be thawed by placing the bottle in a cup of boiling water. When the milk is thawed, shake well and make sure to test the temperature by dripping a few drops on the back of the giver’s hand. breastfeed to be sure before feeding
– Only warm the amount of milk the baby needs to suckle during that feeding.
– If you suspect that the milk is sour or spoiled, you must check immediately. If it is correct, do not breastfeed your baby.
Mothers need to eat and drink a full range of substances, with sufficient quantity and ensure the quality of nutrition during breastfeeding. Avoid excessive abstinence if not necessary and should drink more milk for nutritional supplements.
Where should not breastfeed your baby?
– There are a few cases where it is necessary to avoid breastfeeding and can use replacement milk like mothers with HIV in AIDS, mothers too seriously sick in the stage of exhaustion.
– In case mothers with hepatitis B in the acute advanced stage have HbsAg (+) and HbeAg (+) tests, there is a high risk of transmitting the disease to the baby through breast milk. At that time, if the family has the ability and agrees, the child should breastfeed instead